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Trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation survey 2015 - country notes : Indonesia
This country briefing note is for Indonesia and has been produced as an accompaniment to the <a href ="https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12870/1050">Trade facilitation and paperless trade implementation survey 2015 : Asia and ...
Promotion of intraregional trade and economic cooperation in the automotive sector
(United Nations, 2002)
<p>This report examines the potential of cross-border ventures in Asia in motor vehicle industry: motorcycles, cars, trucks and buses and their components. The production chain and the issues of technology and technology ...
Transnational corporations and backward linkages in Asian electronics industries
(United Nations, 1995)
<p>This monograph presents a study of the development of the backward linkages in the electronics industry in six countries in the Asian and Pacific region. Much of the information about backward linkages between local ...
Food losses in international trade : case studies from Asia and the Pacific
(UN. ESCAP, 2023-12)
<p>Food losses in the international supply chain (ISC) has emerged as an important area due to high socio-economic costs which poses significant challenges of food security, waste management and climate change. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] (2015), around 800 million people do not have enough food to eat. The reduction in food losses can contribute significantly to the reduction of world hunger as well as the improvement in food security (Neff et al., 2015; Kummu et al., 2016; Shafiee-Jood and Cai, 2016). It would also contribute to ensure food safety and nutrition (Affognon et al., 2015; Neff et al., 2015), especially in the developing countries where the highest number of people suffer from hunger and malnourishment (FAO, 2015). According to FAO (2018), around a third of all food spoils world-wide, quantitatively amounting to 1.3 billion tons annually, which is further likely to increase to more than two billion tons per year by 2030. The Food Loss Index of FAO provides food losses estimates at around 14 per cent from the level of post-harvest to the level of delivery at the last trading point(s) in ISC barring losses at retail stage. Food loss is not only an economic issue, as it also poses a moral and ethical issue(s) as almost 12 per cent of the world’s population is suffering from hunger (Lohnes and Wilson, 2018). Globally, with the growing volumes and values of food products, there is an increasing share of food losses in the international supply chain; both in the developed and developing countries, with much higher magnitude in the developing countries. The key reasons for higher food losses in the developing countries are due to factors like inadequate trade logistics infrastructure, improper storage and food handling, unfavorable climatic conditions, lower frequency of international transport services, outdated storage facilities, absence of cold chain infrastructure, sub-standard packaging, lack of knowledge of markets, inefficient marketing institutions and marketing systems and food losses arising-out of rejections and refusals due to non-compliance of quality and sanitary-phytosanitary standards and non-adherence of mandated documentation including procedural compliance(s) (Chauhan et al; 2021).</p> <p>The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that in 2020, approximately 720.4 million to 811.0 million people around world were undernourished, and approximately 1.6 billion metric tonnes of food were lost or wasted globally. According to the FAO’s <a href="https://www.fao.org/3/ca6030en/ca6030en.pdf">State of Food and Agriculture (2019)</a> report, around 14 per cent of the world's food (valued at $400 billion per year) continues to be lost after it is harvested and before it reaches the shops; while <a href="https://www.unep.org/resources/report/unep-food-waste-index-report-2021">UNEP’s Food Waste Index Report</a> shows that a further 17 per cent of food ends up being wasted in retail and by consumers, particularly in households (UNEP, 2021). According to FAO estimates, the food that is lost and wasted could feed 1.26 billion people every year. The amount of food losses and waste was approximately one third of the food produced for human consumption (FAO, 2021). Recognizing and understanding food losses and waste has, therefore, become imperative. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), food that was originally meant for human consumption but for various reasons is removed from the human food chain is considered as food loss or waste, even if it is then directed for non-food use (feed, bio-energy). However, knowing the exact distinction between food loss and food waste is important in formulating recommendations to reduce both of them.</p> <p>defines food loss as “the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from decisions and actions by food suppliers in the chain, excluding retailers, food service providers and consumers.” This refers to food that is discarded, incinerated or otherwise disposed along the food supply chain from harvest/slaughter/catch up to, but excluding the retail level, and does not re-enter into any other productive utilization, such as feed or seed. UNEP (2021) similarly defines food loss as “food that gets spilled, spoilt or otherwise lost, or incurs reduction of quality and value during its process in the food supply chain before it reaches its final product stage, and which typically occurs at production, post-harvest, processing, and distribution stages in the food supply chain”.</p> <p>Food Waste, on the other hand, refers to “the decrease in the quantity or quality of food resulting from the decisions and actions of retailers, food service providers and consumers” (FAO, 2019). UNEP (2021) further elaborates the definition of food waste as “food that completes the food supply chain up to a final product, of good quality and fit for consumption, but still doesn't get consumed because it is discarded, whether or not after it is left to spoil or expire, and which typically (but not exclusively) occurs at retail and consumption stages in the food supply chain”. In other words, food is lost or wasted at every step of the supply chain, from the initial crop production in the field to final household consumption. Food losses occur from production to the retail level, whereas food waste occurs from the retail level to the consumption level. Fruits and vegetables are traded internationally over large distances involving several actors along the entire supply chain. The perishable nature of most fruits and vegetables, which results in shorter shelf life can, therefore, cause high food losses and waste. Losses of fruits and vegetables during cross-border trade has received special attention due to the adverse impact on international trade. That said, this report focuses mainly on food losses of fruits and vegetables that occur during international trade with a specific reference to Sri Lanka.</p>...